P r i n c i p l e o f R e l a t i v i t y
The best known doing of Einstein is the relativity principle. Einstein himself 'relativized' that; and he referred to this, that he found out also other sensible things. Only lately, I had to listen again that he got the Nobel Prize for the relativity theory. That is wrong. 1 But I don't want to discuss it here. Rather I would bring the systems of co-ordinates: On the one hand the "stationary-coordinate system" (local coordinate system) and on the other hand the "fastened coordinate system" in correlation to his relativity principle; where he used the later gladly for moved objects.
Don't fear please that I will discuss the mathematical apparatus of physics of the General Theory of Relativity. We don't need anymore the mathematical diversion of the Special Theory of Relativity. But I drive the abstraction still further as Einstein that did, and I am convinced his idea route will be without high mathematics also understandable; more understandable than that is possible with formulas, which understands anyhow just only an elite; often more bad than right. That is not an attack against the sublime mathematics. Where it is necessary, there is not any more reliable tool.
People with a good education have knowledge about attached coordinate systems. Essentially everyone knows the two particular bearings forms from it. Either one sets his consciousness for the interior of the vehicle, with which one is moved and does not see to what goes on outside; or one adjust oneself for the happenings environment on the outside. Now one can divest this situation of all accessories. Please, follow me into thoughts and let all concrete things aside. Think of empty space. At the best onto vacuum, so that not even particles confuse. In this empty space is a coordinate-three-leg with a x-; y- and z-axis and with a time measurement. First the coordinate-three-leg stops in relation to you. It has the same movement as you yourselves. They stand in the environment or you are in the vehicle and the coordinate-three-leg is <attached onto the vehicle with you in that>. While this the environment with the <stationary coordinate system> is running past outside.
The whole appears even more drastic, when you think away even yourself. The coordinate-three-leg with x-; y- and z-axis and the time measurement moves and the space stops. In the opposite case: the space moves and the coordinate-three-leg with the time measurement is in stop.
That you don't think that it is indifferent: to see it in such turn or such turn, I remind you of real situations. They are in the interior of a vehicle and nature (or technique) changes the one situation into the other situation very suddenly. The moving coordinate system, change itself - indifferent, how it happened - sudden into the stationary coordinate system. That muddles all. The speed difference determines the degree of the muddle. That can mean blue spots, broken ribs or a disaster and the death. If you take that over into your consciousness in this clearness and simplicity, you understand already a side from Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. Without mathematical formulas. Two more facets result from the speed of the moved objects; and from the signal conveyance (for example measured data); in which one can postulate that the speed became high more and more; but not more highly as the speed of light.
Also over the General Relativity one can get a vague idea without mathematics. At first is to think, that the run of the world consist of an immense number of objects, which are each to the other mostly in a very different movement; and that everyone of the objects (or individuals) in motion should have a particular coordinate system; not only the happened reference environment with their stationary coordinate system (which changes by the way continuously); and also not only for separate objects (or individuals) how the added picture showed. This thought should not confuse, but only point out how a consideration becomes complicated if one includes all movements; must include all movements, so that a general statement can attain true value.
The moved objects (or individuals) have their vector x or v of motion direction, and additional also height and width, but that is unimportant for the dynamics, because those parameters are constant in the special system. On this side it simplifies the attached coordinate systems. Because it is a question of the movements of all objects (or individuals) in the relationship to each other: everyone taken as a whole. The general relativity ignores all the many specific qualities of bodies and particles. It stays from this: mass, gravitation and energy; and what effected the movement. At the general relativity principle is open, how the experimenter can win those immensely many single values from the single-coordinates; and how he could bring this into the theory.
Then everything will complicate again. One must consider that all objects (see picture) consist of innumerable subsystems, which also still include down the atoms and molecules with their very different relative movements.
Such overviews make weak spots of the general relativity visible without specific mathematical analysis. Even if therefore the theory is correct in the basic principle, it can be that their results are to win only by approximations-methods. Einstein, however, looked for a stringent solution and expressed his dissatisfaction. 2 All bodies and local particles have around themselves gravitation. The general relativity handles effects which reach from particles and bodies surface out; not the effects in the interior; and it does consider no particles below a not nearer defined minimum of size and gravitation. How can it include boundary-sizes? The general relativity is not an idea, which derives from the basic. The tiniest is excluded.
Attempts to penetrate to the fields in the interior of particles theoretical failed. 3 But one was already early conscious that in the interior from particles also fields must exist. 4 All mechanical macro analogies fail in the interior of particles. It is known, that the atomic system is not built analog to the cosmic planetary system. 5 But to this time was accepted no model conclusively; which explains the inner circumstances of the particles in a plausible manner.
So comes Einstein for first time 1922, and - confirmed through his second preface 1954 - also shortly before his death to the decisive conclusion, "that there must be even more comprehensive and more stringent nature laws than they can formulate the relativity theory and quantum theory today." 6 - This statement is still valid.
1 Albert Einstein got the Nobel prize not for the General Theory of Relativity, but for the correct interpretation of the photoelectric effect (the light-electric effect).
2 Albert Einstein: „C. Is it conceivable that a field theory allows to understand the atomic one and quantum structure of the reality? This question is answered by the most with »no«. I believe, however, that at the present time nobody knows something reliable over this. This is therefore the case because we can not judge, in which manner and how stringent the condition of the singularity-freedom reduces the variety of the solutions. We don't have really at all any possibilities to deduce systematically singularity-free solutions. Approximation possibilities help nothing, because one never knows whether this approximation solution has not a singularity-free stringent solution. For this reason at the present time we can not compare the content of a non-linear-field-theory with the experiences. Only an considerable step in the mathematical means can help here. At this time the opinion predominates that a field theory must be changed first by »quantization« into a statistical theory of field probabilities; and that after more or less defined rules. I see, however, in this method only an attempt to describe in a gist-sense non-linear nature regularities through linear methods.“
„Grundzüge der Relativitätstheorie – Vier Vorlesungen über die Relativitätstheorie“, Vorworte Einsteins vom Jan. 1922 und Dez.1954, Vieweg&Sohn Braunschweig 1956 / Pergamon Press Oxford 1969/73 / Akademie-Verl. Berlin 1979, 5. Aufl. (Hsg: Holzmüller / Reichard / Lösche / Treder), Wissenschaftliche Taschenbücher, Mathematik / Physik, sites 162/163
Copyright © 1956 by Estate of Albert Einstein, Otto Nathan, Executor, 55 East 10th Street, New York, N. Y. / USA
3 Albert Einstein: “The Miesche attempt, the field equations so to complete that they also are valid in the Interior of the electrons had not brought any useful result.”
„Akademie-Vorträge“, Wiederabdruck durch die AdW der DDR, Akademie-Verl. Berlin 1979, Sitzungsber. v. 13. Dez. 1923, site 26
4 Albert Einstein / Mayer: “These equations do not allow any from zero different electrical mass and current density, can be therefore not valid in the interior of electrical particles … But a satisfactory field theory must cope after our conviction with a singularity-free description of the entire field, therefore also with the field's in the interior of the particles.”
„Akademie-Vorträge“, Wiederabdruck durch die AdW der DDR, Akademie-Verl. Berlin 1979, Sitzungsbericht von 1932, XII, site 3
5 “The stability of the atom is unintelligible anyway. After the classical electrodynamics a sped up charge that is also the electron rotating in the ring, radiates energy constantly. The atom would function as a electrical dipole; and the electron would rotate through its energy loss on a increasingly smaller ring radius, and hits upon the atomic nucleus after short time.”
WEIßMANTEL / LENK (Hsg): „Atom - Kleine Enzyklopädie Struktur der Materie“, Leipzig 1970 / 1982, site 25
Atomic model from Bohr: According to Bohrs hypotheses electrons circulate on radiation-free paths. Their angular-momentum is a multiple from whole numbers of the Planck-quantum. The electrons can jump only through absorption of a quantum hv onto a higher, * more high-energy path; that is of the path with the energy E2 onto those with the energy E1 (E2 - E1 = hn). The following illustration shows a hopeless attempt, the experience of the macro physics to translate on the microphysical processes. An electron that circles around the atomic nucleus may be in balance between Coulomb interaction and centrifugal force. The whole should support the Bohr postulates. Today that is recognized as wrong. But on this place is gone not a plausible alternative. One refers blurredly to ‚quantum physical circumstances’. What this may be more than only the subdivision of the processes in portions of Planck-quanta, nobody can say; and this subdivision alone does not supply any universal basis for the versatile happenings in the atomic and molecular area; as well as the phenomena being in the nucleus.
Peter Rennert (Hsg): „Kleine Enzyklopädie Physik“, Leipzig1986, site 282, Abb. 5.6.1-1
6 Hans-Jürgen Treder: “Einstein remarked that a physical theory must be able to represent the physical events not only correctly; but such theory - unlike a mathematical theory - also must so be built, that this contains in itself just the structure of the real cosmos; and nothing in addition to that. After Einstein the physics must show exactly the real world and not derive anything about things which not exists in the reality. The contemporary quantum physics contains supplementary a big number of physical structures which are not understandable. - So Einstein comes finally to the result that there must be even more comprehensive and more stringent nature laws than they can formulate relativity and quantum theory today.”
Albert Einstein, „Akademie-Vorträge“, Wiederabdruck durch die Akademie der DDR, Akademie-Verlag Berlin 1979, 14 N/1975, site 4