In the many contributions about physics and nature sciences which I have read, I have nowhere found an generally valid principle of meaning: for quanta, photons or other special quantum-objects although this are basic ideas of physics. In my booklets: "FinalTheory Spiral-Feld-Model" (2005) as well as: "Universum der Quantenwirbel" (2007 only German) and "Spiral-Field-Theory - Universe of Quantum Whirls" (2008) I point out the fuzzy meanings and the required standardization to it. Of course must experiment results remain the basis of physics. But there are areas of nature which axiomatic are outside the access of our experiments because there effective energies are either too big or too small.
Refrained from that that must be developed our measuring technique in the micro array; nevertheless, there also is a theoretical problem there; which has already been discussed at the beginning of the quantum mechanics. Every measuring system consists from matter and this one is in the final analysis: always produced from quanta and therefore can not be able to isolate a single effect-quantum (Planck's constant ) like an atom. In addition: What benefits the most exact experimental result; if it degenerates in a term clutter to a single result and if exist no theory which could draw secondary conclusions?
Quantum - Quanta
At first must the physics and all nature sciences including the medicine know what they in principle has to understand under an "effect-quantum" (Planck's constant; quantum of action or effect-quantum) and under its language variations. Note: Here is not to think about occasional variations which are free for every author; but about the specific meaning in the whole system of scientific explanations. We need not talk about the Planck's constant at this place. This is those tiniest quantity of effect which finds also himself in every physics phenomenon as an undermost unit (In my booklets I describe the above mentioned assigned nature analogy).
In the consecutive developments a number of further words was formed through the knowledge about the generally discontinuous energy transfer which miss an exact meaning. The term-word: effect-quantum (Planck's constant) contradicts the basic thesis of the concept-system of the classic physics which espouses a divisibility of all sizes into infinitesimal smallest quantities. So were generated from the starting-word »effect-quantum (Planck's constant)« by shortening and by change of meaning; the new words: »quantum of action«, »quant«, »quanta« (or »quants«), »quantization«, »light-quant«, »UV-quant«, »gamma-quant« (or »g-quant«) as well as the generalizations »photon« and »quasi-particle« (Also comes »radiation-shaped elementary particle« under this).
Perhaps the time is simply still not ripe: the least grain of effect or energy in the "effect-quantum“ (Planck's constant) actually as nothing else as that what encountered Max Planck: namely the certain effect quantity of 6,626.10-34 J.s (or the certain energy quantity of 6,626.10-34 J; after dividing by the time) accepting; which is stored in the field-deformation of every full turn of the spatial screw-field-skein; and that without any mysticism. Our uncertainty about the complex micro-processes in the nature in our surroundings and our uncertainty in the great ones about the cosmic phenomena should be reason to practice more discipline with the use of the concept words.
If one takes the »effect-quantum« (Planck's constant) as the »1« of the quantum physics; as a part of a rotating »crew-field-skein«s (»spiral-field-skein« or for tiny dimensions »screw-field-string« and for bigger dimensions »screw-field-rope«); or simplified as part of a »quantum-skein« (or »quanta-skein«); then this would be a normally conceptual abbreviation from the word »quantum«; and these words would have an accordant meaning. If one, however, starts out with many »effect-quanta« namely from quantities from this (the linguistic plural of the »effect-quantum« even, for example in »photons«, »UV-quants«, gamma-quants« etc.); one then immediately leaves the bottom of the definition automatically. A majority of quanta or loops or clews is always a skein.
Now is an excursion into the empiricism unavoidable. Nobody is able a single »effect-quantum« (a single loop or single clew) to identify and to isolate with measuring means like an atom. This is also not possible with the precept of the hope: "Sometime, one will be able to do this in a far time distance!" All experimental quantum physics takes place in group phenomena of a gigantic number of quanta; so that will be measurable even the small groups only after a great progress in the technique development.
Light-quant, UV-quant, gamma-quant, photon, quasi-particle
Now turn us to the derived concept words. There one will handle the word: »quant« usually even more casually. The singular of the word conceals that here are involved always gigantic quantities of »effect-quanta« (Planck's constants); therewith the happening at all can be measurable. Often are the experts himself not conscious of it. I could explain this circuitous linguistic-philosophically. But I prefer an empirical proof. An »effect-quantum« (Planck's constant) or a »quant« is principled not measurable for the experimental physics. The »light-quant«, the »UV-quant«, the »gamma-quant«; as well as the »photons« and the »quasi-particles«, however, are very well measurable objects. Exception: the objects with a very low energy content. With the »Spiral-Field-Model« - interpreted by me - is measurable a »screw-field-skein«, a »spiral-field-skein«, or more simply formulates: a »quantum-skein«; which has - depending from the sensitiveness of the measuring system - a minimum number of quanta or field-clews (more as approximately 1014).
If one assumes for example a measuring facility with a already for a long time intended but till today not achieved sensitiveness of 10-20; then one needs at least 1014 field-clews (Planck's constants); therewith a gamma-quant, UV-quant or photon is just so just measurable (a single mono-quantum-skein of a remote star on the retina of our eyes, a sigle photon in the multiplier). Such a skein would be like a gamma-quant with 10-14m wavelength for example only one meter long. A UV-quantum with 10nm wavelength would already have a length of 1,000 km. A Photon with 500nm wavelength would be even 50,000 km long. For whom it is not usual to be afflicted with such quantities in an idealization should not amaze; in as much as these thoughts are still first speculative: and they must be proved (or disproved) by experiments.
If one speaks about »photons«, »light-quants«, »UV quanta«, »gamma quants«, »quasiparticles« »screw-field-skeins« »spiral-field-skeins«, as well as about »spiral-field-strings« or very simply about »quantum-skeins«, then I understand of it electromagnetic spiral-field-skeins which appear in abundance of different variations. A photon is therefore under no circumstances an always in the same shape given quantum-object; but varies in a wide area. The statements in the technical literature such as for example: "exactly one photon" or "1/1000 photon" are contents empty. Finally I summarize the varying characteristics:
- Frequency n (In monochromatic beams constant. Exception: "Ageing" of the light by energy losses on gigantic cosmic ways)
- Wavelength l (Changes after the Frequency and the concrete local field strength)
- Length l = n.l
The astronomy has adapted itself to this fact through long exposure times if it takes a photograph of faintly-gleam stars. Herewith will be grasped, per second, spiral-field-skeins of a length of circa 300,000 km and they will be used for the blackening of the photosensitive plate; in which it also could be shorter multi-skeins here. According to these considerations is on the one hand absolutely defined the meaning of the concept-words »effect-quantum«, »effect-quant«, »quantum of action« or simply »quant« as a »single loop« with the deformation energy of 6,626.10-34 J; the energy in size of the Planck constant h ; and on the other hand the sought-after »1« of the quantum physics.
On the contrary to that, according to Erwin Schrödinger, is the plural of h
after the formula n.6,626.10-34 J; always a "skein of events".
Herewith is n a completely arbitrary and therefore not absolutely a straight number; as it often will be obstinately postulated; because, however, the effect-quantum (Planck's constant) is the smallest (complete) element of all »screw-field-skeins«. But any arbitrary full turn finally can be subdivided into infinitely many infinitesimal angle steps.
This definition of the photons or quantum-skeins embraces the complete gigantic spectrum of the radiation. The visible light and the spectra of the periodical system of the chemical elements are included as well as all radiation categories with higher and deeper frequencies of inclusively the ones who are till now unknown to us.
Also this concept-word must be critically analyzed for an universal physics theory. One rightly assumes in the established quantum physics that any energy transfer is carried out discontinuously in steps of h equal about 6,626.10-34 J, the smallest partition element. All existences insists from such doses, essentially tiniest doses. Based on this one has examined in the 1920s years all elementary events and objects with refined indirect methods . Of course one has found on the detour via experimental results that the divisibility into effect-quantums alone does not provide any complete explanation for all appearing questions and all experimental results. Therefore one has set additional acceptances and has arranged theories which explain special aspects. Other researchers employ themselves with that which the quantum theory does not explain. I follow the advice of Albert Einstein, that a theory out of herself forth must lead up near to the natural event. On the one hand it must include all true things; and on the other hand it shall not allow any statements about quantum-objects which do not happen in nature. Because a quant is a rotation (spin); which further can be divided into angle steps, therefore appear inevitably fragments of the full effect-quantum (the full loop rotation) in quantum-skeins. In view of our unavoidable measuring errors these is pragmatically completely irrelevant but it must be mentioned theoretically because it can play a decisive role in special cases. With the exclusion methods in the current quantum physics, is eliminated everything which does not fit in this flat-rate concept. Some more than necessary, was rejected, which does bring the nature, however, into fruition; but some others will taked as true which are not realized in the nature.
Particle character of the radiation
On the discontinuous transference of energy; which was found by Max Planck; is based other most-general; and such properties of the nature which are partial not figured out; and which me had summarized:
In the »spiral-field-theory« under title: »Functional structure principle of matter«.
All happenings consist according to that from »spiral-field-skeins« or »quantum-skeins« whose loops, rotations, turns are continuous connected with all others as a single quantum-object; but without any divide-brands. Nevertheless, the loops participating are able to be counted (even-numbered, or uneven-numbered, i.e. with a rest-fragment). Therefore all skeins are both: discontinuous and continuous at the same time. All light-quants, UV-quants and gamma-quants, photons and quasiparticles are therefore in a deeper language analysis a plurality (of quanta) and a singularity (of objects) at the same time. In this is due the particle character of any radiation. In as much as each of these skein objects has beginning and end; and the energy is concentratedly around the light-beam of the linear optics in a channel with admittedly an infinite diameter; but where the intensive effect is restricted on the local area of few l. Whether now like in the above examples the skein in question is only 1 m; 1,000 kilometers; 50,000 kilometers or even 300,000 kilometers long, it is a spatially restricted belonging together object (Lichtkorpuskel after Isaac Newton) with beginning and end. In this sense has from the start every radiation: particle character. So rays are not a pure vibration in a medium (Ether); how was speculated already from Isaac Newton; and he delivered herewith arguments against Christiaan Huygens and the ether-hypothesis. The »general physics field« which Albert Einstein tried to grasp mathematically and which extends also over the cosmic vacuum is initiated into electromagnetic vibrations as radiation. However, these electromagnetic vibrations are no repeating of forward and backward. These vibrations are a constant rotation of the deformed »general physics field«.