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Freiburg 08

German Book Fair in Leipzig 14. - 17. March 2013
A K V Working Group of smaller Publishers in the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels

The Continuum of Quanta

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Lecture ahaead the
Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft
D P G F r e i b u r g 0 8
from Dipl.-Ing. Udo A.J. Hartje
Pictures from Wilipedia

Albert Einstein: The researcher must so to speak eavesdrop off from the nature any general principles; when he does find out a general trend on bigger complexes of empirical facts; which can be sharp formulated.

Albert Einsteins Hypothetical Question

Let me with you renew the thought experiment ascribed to Einstein which he put to the beginning of his considerations:

»What could be seen if one could run with the speed of the light; and that in the next nearness from a ray of light?«

One could of course “see” nothing. For "to see”; one does need photons. We speak here from photons. Photons will be not reflected from photons. Photons does interfere each with the other. Ligth is field. However: What we must imagine the objects of quanta “rays of light” deductively? Einstein had not added details to this. He got stuck apparently with the question: How could an observer discover the oscillation of the light ray at all, if he will be carried along with light-speed in a coordinate-system with the ray of light.                         

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Louis de Broglie to it: 

The basic idea of the quantum theory is well the impossibility to look at an isolated energy piece without assigning a certain frequency to it.

On such questions the established quantum physics is incapable to give an answer

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This would recognize an observer who could perceive the structure of field:

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Postulate: Resting electromagnetic ray in a Carried Coordinate-System
Above in a symbol-graph as a naked spatial spiral curve
and below in a multi-point-graph as a field section

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Postulated Electromagnetic Mono-Rays

Perspective symbol view with right and left turn sense
 All electromagnetic beams are space-time processes in the »General Physical Field«, which don't need a medium; but it will be transported without a medium through an absolute vacuum

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The electromagnetic individual beam (Mono ray) has a circular crosscut in movement direction. The diagonal part of the view shows the spatial perspective. Below one see the side view. That is the known sine curve, the synonym for vibrations at all.

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  The principle of spirals rotation is same at all frequencies

For many people the sine curve is familiar as the synonym for vibrations. The sine curve is the result of a projection of the spatial spiral curve into the level. Often this will not consciously the people; even a number of scientists let this thoughtlessly unnoticed. This leads to wrong inferences.

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To it a remark: What must be understood exactly under an oscillation?
              Answer: Every cyclic repetition of a process is an oscillation!
Here to is a part of this also the normal constant rotation and even also the constant rotation of the electromagnetic waves; that is the principle of the spatial spiral rotation of the »general physical field« with all their frequencies. (Started from the cosmic ultra-X-rays with 10-16 meters wavelength and a diameter of the same dimension how all forms of electromagnetic rays about visible light with nanometers up to kilometers at cosmic radio waves). That means mono-rays of spiral-field-skeins, wave-packets, strings of QED, and quantum-skeins or how always named. To this I stress followings:

The topological space requirement DROPS with the deformation degree and with the increasing energy!
    
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      In the undistorted field is the energy E = 0

In the book »Teilchen, die aus Licht bestehen« I show the »general physical field« in the not distorted condition as all-round monotonously. This field without deformation and then also without energy can be accepted as a manifestation for the term word »nothing«. In this confessed form this one exists consequently nowhere in our known universe. However, the most important thing for the physics is: The representation of the field has another basis than the one of bodies and (real) particles. Field has structure; but field does not have mass which one could fix according to Newton in a mathematical point.

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In the distorted field is the energy E = x

  The value x of the energy varies according to the deformation degree of the field.

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Where is the energy if the light-ray from a distant star is
on the way to us?
Jules Henri Poincaré (1854-1912). Photograph from the frontispiece of the 1913 edition of Last Thoughts.

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Jules Henri Poincaré If the light of a remote star needs several years to reach us, then it is no more on the star; and also not already on the earth. It then must be someplace; and so to speak adhere to anything material bearer. One can represent the same thought in a more mathematical and more abstract form. What we took from this happening, is that molecules in materials became changes. What we find out for example is, that our photographic plate changes under the influence of phenomena whose scene was the white-hot mass of a star several years before.

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Max von Laue about the new idea of the electromagnetic impulse:

Now got the body which emittes the ray; but the oppositely same strength as the absorbing body; because the emission and the absorption need the same time, the impulse changes of both bodies finally compensate for themselves exactly. While the ray is running from this one to the other one, however, the mechanical impulse is for certain another than before the emission and after the absorption.
If one wants to keep up the impulse sentence; then remains nothing to do but to ascribe an electromagnetic impulse to the ray; and to accept the preservation for the sum from a mechanical and electromagnetic impulse. And then remains nothing as this new term word to use: not only for so fast oscillations as it make the light-beams and the thermal radiation.

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Distorted field is elastic and stores energy

The drawing with multi-points shows in the accompanying picture the variant of the stretched basic structure; which is bent (For a comparison see the undistorted field). It gives our experience with all known fields again, namely: that the field strength will be to the outside 1/r2 weaker. This is the normal condition of the field structure. The curving of the basic structure requires energy; and it causes an additional structure change. Against that defends the »general physical field« and tries to return into the normal condition. The process of the defense against a forced structure change is elasticity. If the quantum-skein will be bent; then the outside points bring itself away from each other; and the inner points move on each other to.
With regard to the elasticity are the Technical Sciences and the Theoretical Physics very near. Energy-store is in every case the »general physical field«. The field is in the substances between the atoms and molecules. The structures of the materials and the fields are interwoven.

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Transversality and form of the mono-rays

The shown graphic depictions solve consecutive a number of problems which till now are open. The electromagnetic rays get to be graphic demonstrative; and that against the opinion of the established quantum-physics. All rotation-planes of the quantum-skein-oscillation are crosswise to the movement direction. That all electromagnetic wave packages swing transversally this became now with the pictures clarified graphically.

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Erwin Schrödinger had stressed in 1933: "Both: the particle-picture and the wave-picture have truth-value, which we must not give up. ... But about the uniting to an individually grasped-hand-picture; however, the opinions lie so far apart that very many this see as impossible at all. I will outline the context now briefly. But do not expect that a such unified concrete picture results for you; and do blame for this neither my clumsiness in the depiction nor their own slow-wittedness. Nobody has solved this problem successfully till now.

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This is still valid today because in the 1930s years the principle discussion was not completed.

The shape of the phenomenon of the electromagnetic mono-rays is on the one hand the perspective of the spatial spiral curve but one can see with the view in the lengthways direction only circles. This is from basicly importance because electromagnetic rays furnish their concentrated effect exclusively in movement direction.

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Depiction of quantum-skeins as mono-rays by multi-points
(Multi-point-depiction)

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Shape of the mono-rays in lengthways view (Crosscut)
and the transversality of quantum skeins

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On the left the lengthways view in symbol-depiction as a naked spiral curve and on the right as a cut by the field skein in multi-point-depiction.

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A wave front which dazzles our eyes

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What is the analogon of Planck's constant h in the nature?
The »quantum of action h « or the »effect quantum «

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J.L. Destouches about Max Planck: "When Planck in the year 1900 had made his famous prerequisite of the discontinuity of the energy exchange between matter and radiation; to win an exact formula over for the spectral distribution of the energy of the black body... he triggered the most profound revolution with that which has undergone the physics till now. - In every physical theory one must carefully distinguish between the objective elements ... and the subjective one ... which serve for the calculation of forecasts. The quantization must therefore be to formulate in an objective way."
Much - also nonsensical one - has been concluded since then. For example about the atom model of Bohr with the electrons circling like planets; which true shall radiate because of their high acceleration.
For me crystallized out, that there exists no indissoluble contradiction between the continuum and the discontinuum in the two physics areas.
As a consequence of the sum of my theoretical analyses, I became led by J. L. Destouches on the natural analogon for Planck's »effect quantum h «.       
Postulate:Every complete rotation of any arbitrary electromagnetic beam (mono-ray) with an arbitrary frequency is a natural correspondence (an analgon) for exactly 1 Planck's »effect quantum h « and exactly one wavelength long (1 priod).
My title »The Continuum of Quanta« is justified. The quantization does not deliver pulverized energy. The »effect quantum h « is not indivisible; because it let itself divide in angle steps dj. Here it is unimportant which frequencies and which wavelengths it are, i.e. it applies from the highest frequencies of the cosmic radiation over the little area of the visible light just like for radio signals. The »effect quantum h « exists nowhere as a separate quantized one. The »general physical field« it consists of never tears really apart. This is only hard for many people to internalize. It confirms the general interrelation of all events.

The two mono-clews which are analoga of the »effect quantum h «: one in symbol depiction (spiral-curve) and the other in multi-point-depiction (field).
The mono-clews are the not differentiable elements of the Bose-Einstein condensate.

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Continuous transition in the so-called discontinuum

Hereby I give a overview as I imagine the process of the radiation with different frequencies and wavelengths in detail. After that, even in a higher mind, the representatives of the continuum-thinking like Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz and Max Planck himself are right just as the advocates of the discontinuum since Planck's discovery. Nature does not make jumps but all energy is discreetly subdivided. Both opinions must compromise on what is realized from them in the nature. All events are indissoluble connected with the general happening of the physical field; and they change themselves uninterrupted each into the other, although the energy always transfers itself portion-wise. Not as the last: I refer on the fact that the »effect quantum h « is not the tiniest field part; one rotation, one turn or a single field-loop can be obvious subdivided into infinitely many angle steps dj. With that is established the unity of the physics in this point; in any case for the whole area of the radiation. However, this does not mean that all problems are solved. In opposite: The new principle must be checked, used and - if necessary - modified to cope with upcoming tasks.

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Vector r of an electromagnetic mono-ray

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This is exact one »effect quantum h « (i.e. exact 1 period = one wavelength l  long). The vector r    carries within its arrowhead a field-disc; while this vector itself whirls around the light-beam of the linear optics. That is showed in 36 angle steps of 10 angle degrees each. Of course the vector rotates in truth in endless much infinitesimally small angle steps dj around the light-beam of the geometrical optics.

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Experimental physics:

Ray-bundles and length of the light-beams

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The experimental physics only works with ray-bundles (above in symbol-depiction). My question what a single light-beam is, was never answered. Also not from the later Nobel prize winner Prof. Theodor W. Hänsch on the occasion of his lecture»Der Pulsschlag des Lichts« (June 2004,, Max-von-Laue-Kolloquium Berlin). The linear optics takes a line with arrowhead (mathematical beam) for the depiction of a light-beam. Frequency and wavelength are not depicted. In my »spiral-field-model« are graphically depicted spiral-rotations and spiral-radius r. The feet-point from the light-vector r   does glide with light-speed along the mathematical beam-line, while the vector r  (completed with its field-disc on its arrowhead) whirls around the mathematical beam-line. From it a similar phenomenon arises just like the »rotating field« in electrical machines. Every rotating field can have only one direction of rotation and only a frequency (all these tiny rotating fields are monochrome). Every mono-ray of an electromagnetic wave consists from a gigantic number of »effect quanta h « = 6,625610-34  Js (periods, mono-rotations, turns, field loops). Otherwise the experimental physics would not have any chance to track down such an object (mono-ray, quantum-skein).
A quantum-skein must consist from at least 1014 wavelengths if it at all shall be measurable with a relative measuring sensitiveness of 10-20; which is not reached today (The astronomy needs therefore long exposure times particularly at light-weak objects in the cosmos).

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Waves and particles - Thought experiment: Generating of a local matter with mass from a free (bare) radiation

Erwin Schrödinger: “There, it fells us like scales from the eyes: our old usual, kind atoms, corpuscles, particles are Planck's energy quanta. The pillars of those quanta are itself also quanta. One feels dizzy. One notices: It lies something of a complete foundation at the base, which one do not understand yet.”     (And on another place:)

“The quantum theory widened the atomism almost into the boundlessness; however simultaneous, it brought it also into a crisis which is more serious than most of us want to admit. Taken in the whole the present crisis in the today's basic-sciences indicates the necessity to be revised the basic questions till very deep layers.

After has been placed the nature phenomenon of "radiation" on a general theoretical foundation now, I invite you to a thought experiment.

We start out again from Einstein who predicted: Light-rays which run near the edge of the sun will be deflected around some curve seconds. Therefore are behind the sun by it hidden stars; which even be visible a little earlier as it might be possible. During an eclipse of the sun then this was confirmed by British astronomers.

The second information came from serious physical tabular books. Fields in the immediate proximity and in the inside of particles are up to 1040-folds stronger than all known outer fields including for example the sun gravitation.

If it is so, then beams can be bent with more than only curve seconds and for example led around the atomic nucleus. The conclusion from this: Then are it in the atom not electrons which circulating round the atomic nucleus. But it are mono-rays with spin which rotate in itself and around the atomic nucleus. The mono-rays are forming quantum-skein-rings which keep on itself its radiation character. The question why the electrons do not radiate in Bohr's atom model; despite the high accelerations on its paths with extremely tiny bend-radius is answered with that. No particles are circulating there like planets.

If this happens without participation of an atom, then will generates separate particles without nucleus. Showed as Feynman-graphs. Also all sub-particles in the atomic nucleus are itself without nucleus.    

Particle without nucleus
after Feymans-Graph

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Extremely strong field in proximity of the atom nucleus

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Shell-electrons and particles without nucleus

A such process will originate locality from pure radiation. The simplest real particle is born! A this way generated particle keeps in its inside the radiation-specific.
Mono-rays circulate in itself if its nose (bow) phase-exact will lead on its own end (stern).

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The incorporation of the gravitation into the physical world system

• The logical classification of the gravitation can be tackled because is based now the principle of the generation of genuine particles from the pure radiation on a general theoretical foundation successful.

• I remind: Quantum-skeins are surrounded with a field-shell, a field sleeve. This is valid: For the swarms of pure radiation with all frequencies and wavelengths, and also just like for all the locally circulating radiation in ring-processes (self-processes in the atomic shell, i.e. shell-electrons, and then free electrons, nuclear electrons, all nuclear sub-particles in general, neutrinos etc.).

• The prominent difference between swarms of pure radiation of the cosmic vacuum; and the matter with mass (gasses, liquids, plasma, solid substances), does lie in the considerably higher concentration of quantum-skeins per volume unit in the accumulations of celestial bodies. Every atom delivers its tiny contribution to the gravitation field in accordance with its number of spiral-loops which we have identified as an effect-quantum h. This already superpose itself in the distance of few atom diameters with all other contributions of the innumerable mini-sources for the gravitation. All atoms are balls of mono-ray-rings. Everybody consists of a large number of ring-processes (spectral lines) depending on the chemical element.

• The sum of all spiral-loops h of all quantum-skeins with its field sleeves are the sources of the gravitation. The powerfullest gravitation field is there where the most self-processes locally circulating are accumulated.

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Conclusions and speculations about the so-called

»Dark matter« and »Dark energy«

The general conclusion by the new thoughts to the functional structure of the matter is: There are no "a priori" existing mysterious tiny verdicts; because only radiation exists everywhere: the one exists as the pure (or free) radiation and the other one exists as bound radiation in the local self-processes which there circulating in itself, caught so to speak.

A speculation shall be checked: Around the swarms of pure radiation (and roving particles) in the vacuum of the universe arises a summary field with an average field strength. The presumed »dark energy« and »dark matter« could be in the lower gravitation field of the pure (or free) electromagnetic radiation of all frequencies and wavelengths which traveling through the cosmic space.

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Universality of nature in the »Spiral-Field-Theory«

Grand Unification or Final Theory: »Spiral-Field-Model«

Classic Physics

established Quantum Physics

My titles: »Funktionale Struktur der Materie« (1989); »Gebogenes Licht« (2000); »Materie aus Gefangenem Licht« " (2001); and »Teilchen, die aus Licht bestehen« (2004) are not in an indirect transposed sense but literal thought (see: Books to it). The whole universe works according to the explained principle which does justice to its universality.

In the universe exists only simply and solely one universal element: The electromagnetic radiation. But there is no indivisible element »atomos« after which the science was searching for a long time!

The radiation exists on the one hand directly as such; if e.g. it comes from the sun to us and donates lives, on the other hand it also appears as UV-radiation, as gamma-radiation or as high-energetic cosmos radiation which can harm.

In a completely different manner, the radiation is existing in innumerable ring-processes where it circulates with light-speed in field-processes; and through this arises the particles and bodies.
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The pure (free) radiation is imponderable, not weighable (visible light but also every other electromagnetic radiation). But on the other hand the radiation as a local matter is ponderably, weighable. It is then this which we can grasp and which is our body. Pure radiation runs with light-speed along us; and through us through; and will leave after that us again. The inside circulating radiation makes the physical matter, i.e. all corporeal objects and substance existences. The universe consists from both where incessantly changes each into the other.

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Officially recognized weak points of the Quantum Mechanics

Prof. Dr. Joachim Schröter, Theoretical Physiks, UNI Paderborn:
What is Quantum Mechanics NOT?*

• The quantum mechanics is not a 'genuine' quantum theory in the true-bred sense, because one puts into its inner the existence of particles. It describes therefore only how (statistically totalities of) particles are in behaving; but why particles exist says it not.
• Especially: She cannot explain the generate or the destruction (e.g. disintegrates the neutron after 1/2 H) of particles.
• Interaction with light can be described only semi-classically, by what the spontaneous emission remains not understood.
• With the statement of the Hamiltonoperator one is to some extent betray by the quantum mechanics: It takes him for given.
• A satisfactory synthesis of quantum mechanics and Einstein's relativity theory is absent.

             Frequently asked questions (FAQs) to the Quantum Mechanics
• Is an electron a particle or a wave now? Nothing of both. An electron is not a classic billiard ball whose future path is predetermined from its present state of motion. However, it is also not an oscillating gaußförmige density cloud, which with the time (dispersion) will diffluence.
• And what has it on itself with the self interference?
• If a single electron flies through the double-slit, there is on the display one light lightning. The known intensity distribution results only if many electrons have passed the double-slit; and one calculates about the light lightnings an average. The many electrons then form the statistical totality.
• How the single electron 'does know' that a second slit is nearby?
• That said nevertheless, from the difficulties with the word "knowledge": How many slits exist does not know the single electron but the statistical totality of all electrons which have flown through the left and the right.

• What one understands under the "collapse" of the wave function?

• Within the early days of the quantum mechanics the thought was espoused, that for example behind the double-slit both possibilities are present in the electron namely having gone through the left or the right as coherent overlapping of two conditions; then a position measuring would the electron coerce, its mind in favor of one of these two assertions to determine and whilst it the other from the overlapping's will eject: its wave function "collapses". In the quantum mechanics of today has got obsolete the question to the status of one electron.

• Does Schrödinger's cat still live? No idea have just a look! In a statistical totality of Schrödinger-cats live after the time t still

100*exp (-t*ln(2)/T) percent, whereby T=half life of the radio isotope.     * The emphasis of NOT and all other does correspond with the original

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